Science子刊尿液中游离DNA可以用于肿瘤检测

标签:尿液,中游,游离,可以,用于,肿瘤,检测  2021-2-23 9:45:01  预览

  

长期以来,尿液分析一向是身体检查的重要内容,可以用于检测和处理一些疾病奥林巴斯显微镜和混乱,但这不包括癌症。然而,假如真的能够实现,让癌症在最早的阶段被发现,而此时患者对治疗的反应更为有利,改善预后的可能性也更大呢?

这是翻译基因组学研究所(Translational Genomics Research Institute,TGen)的科学家们提出的题目,该研究所是盼望之城(City of Hope)美国医疗中心的附属机构,他们通过分析尿液中无细胞奥林巴斯显微镜短链DNA,找到了一种早期检测癌症的方法。

这一研究效果发表在《Science Translational Medicine》上,曩昔的观点认为尿液中的DNA片段是随机降解的,而且太短,无法提供任何关于癌症如许复杂疾病奥林巴斯显微镜的故意义的信息。而最新研究中,研究人员发现这些DNA片段根本不是随机的,而且可以清楚地注解健康奥林巴斯显微镜人和癌症患者之间的区别。

医学博士Muhammed Murtaza说:“虽然目前照旧从尿样中检测癌症的初步研究成果,但毫无疑问,这是令人鼓舞的第一步。”

Murtaza博士此前向导了一个TGen科学家团队,率先在血液中使用循环肿瘤DNA,行使基因片段通过简单的抽血检测癌症。这种“液体活组织检查”的方法避开了对很多疑似肿瘤进行外科活组织检查的必要四川人事考试网,这意味着大夫可以更频繁地监测病奥林巴斯显微镜人的癌症,由于这种方法的侵袭性较小。

收集尿液样本可以实现无创检测,Murtaza博士诠释说,还可以省去实验室检查,样品可以在家里收集并邮寄分析。

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通过研究患有各种癌症的儿童和成人胰腺癌的组织样本,研究人员绘制了尿液中的DNA片段图谱。这些儿童的恶性肿瘤通常移动得特别很是快,胰腺癌的早期发现对他们的疾病奥林巴斯显微镜终局至关紧张。

“我们发现基因组的某些区域在健康奥林巴斯显微镜人的尿液中不会被片段化,但在癌症患者中同样的区域片段化程度更高,“Murtaza博士说。

在多个个体中,片段的分布特别很是相似;DNA片段的长度相似,发生片段的基因组区域同等,而且还能知道是什么类型的细胞奥林巴斯显微镜产生了片段。

文章另一位作者Ajay Goel博士说:“我们的尿液分析技术在检测很多癌症,分外是胰腺癌方面将是一个紧张的突破。”假如及早发现癌症,将大大降低目前美国第三大癌症死亡缘故原由的死亡率。”

虽然早期效果很有盼望,但研究人员指出广告策划公司,有需要在更多的癌症患者群体中测试他们的发现百度优化,并确定男女之间的差异。“这是一个基础的新发现,为癌症的早期诊断提供了一个潜在的动态途径,由于尿液是最容易采集的样本之一自发光标志牌,假如后续的研究产生积极的效果,总有一天会看到这个测试成为一个人年度身体测试的一个组成部分。”

(生物通)

原文题目:

Havell Markus, Jun Zhao, Tania Contente-Cuomo, Michelle D. Stephens, Elizabeth Raupach, Ahuva Odenheimer-Bergman, Sydney Connor, Bradon R. McDonald, Bethine Moore, Elizabeth Hutchins, Marissa McGilvrey, Michelina C. de la Maza, Kendall Van Keuren-Jensen, Patrick Pirrotte, Ajay Goel, Carlos Becerra, Daniel D. Von Hoff, Scott A. Celinski, Pooja Hingorani, Muhammed Murtaza. Analysis of recurrently protected genomic regions in cell-free DNA found in urine. Science Translational Medicine, 2021; 13 (581): eaaz3088 DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aaz3088



Urinalysis has long been a staple of physical exams to detect and manage a number of diseases and disorders, but not cancer. What if it were that easy, though, and cancer was detected in its very earliest stages when the disease responds more favorably to treatment and improved outcomes are more likely?

That was the question posed by scientists at the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen), an affiliate of City of Hope, who have found a way of zeroing in on early-stage cancer by analyzing short strands of cell-free DNA in urine. Their study's findings were published today in the scientific journal Science Translational Medicine.

Previous thought once held that DNA fragments in urine were degraded at random and were too short to provide any meaningful information about a disease as complex as cancer. TGen and City of Hope researchers and their colleagues from Baylor University and Phoenix Children's Hospital found that these DNA fragments are not random at all, and can clearly indicate a difference between healthy individuals and those with cancer.

"There are many steps between where we are now and where we want to go -- detecting cancer from a urine sample -- but without doubt this is an encouraging first step," said Muhammed Murtaza, M.B.B.S., Ph.D., an Associate Professor and Co-Director of TGen's Center for Noninvasive Diagnostics, and the study's senior author.

Dr. Murtaza previously led a team of TGen scientists who pioneered the use of circulating tumor DNA in blood, using genetic fragments to detect cancer with a simple blood draw. This "liquid biopsy" method sidesteps the need for many surgical biopsies of suspected tumors, and means that physicians can monitor cancer in their patients more frequently given the less invasive nature of the procedure.

Collecting a urine sample reduces the physical invasiveness to zero, Dr. Murtaza explained, and may eliminate a lab visit, given that the sample could be collected at home and mailed in for analysis.

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By studying tissue samples from children with various cancers, whose malignancies often move extraordinarily fast, and adults with pancreatic cancer, whose early detection is critical to their disease outcomes, researchers mapped the DNA fragmentation profiles in their urine.

"We found that certain regions of the genome are protected from fragmentation in urine from healthy individuals, but the same regions are more fragmented in patients with cancer," Dr. Murtaza said.

The fragmentation profiles were remarkably similar across multiple individuals; the length of the DNA fragments were similar, the regions of the genome where the fragmentation occurred were consistent, and informed researchers what type of cells contributed the fragments.

Ajay Goel, Ph.D., chair of the Department of Molecular Diagnostics and Experimental Therapeutics and Associate Director for Basic Science at City of Hope, an independent research and treatment center for cancer and diabetes, is one of the study's authors.

"If the study results come to fruition, our urinalysis technology would be a remarkable breakthrough in the detection of many cancers, especially in pancreatic cancer," Dr. Goel said. "If cancer is detected early, it could substantially lower the mortality rate for what is currently the third leading cause of cancer death in the U.S."

While early results are promising, the researchers indicate the need to test their findings in much larger populations of cancer patients and identify differences between men and women, young and old, and those with co-morbidities, such as diabetes and other chronic diseases.

"This is a fundamental new finding and provides a potentially dynamic path forward for the early diagnosis of cancer, given that urine is one of the easiest samples to collect," said Daniel D. Von Hoff, M.D., TGen Distinguished Professor and one of the paper's authors. "If follow-on studies yield positive results, I could one day see this test becoming an integral part of one's annual physical."

Journal Reference:

  1. Havell Markus, Jun Zhao, Tania Contente-Cuomo, Michelle D. Stephens, Elizabeth Raupach, Ahuva Odenheimer-Bergman, Sydney Connor, Bradon R. McDonald, Bethine Moore, Elizabeth Hutchins, Marissa McGilvrey, Michelina C. de la Maza, Kendall Van Keuren-Jensen, Patrick Pirrotte, Ajay Goel, Carlos Becerra, Daniel D. Von Hoff, Scott A. Celinski, Pooja Hingorani, Muhammed Murtaza. Analysis of recurrently protected genomic regions in cell-free DNA found in urine. Science Translational Medicine, 2021; 13 (581): eaaz3088 DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aaz3088

Cite This Page:

The Translational Genomics Research Institute. "Cell-free DNA in urine as potential method for cancer detection: If successful, non-invasive method could transform detection and treatment outcomes." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 18 February 2021. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/02/210218094524.htm>. The Translational Genomics Research Institute. (2021, February 18). Cell-free DNA in urine as potential method for cancer detection: If successful, non-invasive method could transform detection and treatment outcomes. ScienceDaily. Retrieved February 19, 2021 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/02/210218094524.htm The Translational Genomics Research Institute. "Cell-free DNA in urine as potential method for cancer detection: If successful, non-invasive method could transform detection and treatment outcomes." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/02/210218094524.htm (accessed February 19, 2021).